Unit – I

Introduction: Embedded Systems and general purpose computer systems, history , classifications, applications and purpose of embedded systems

Core of embedded systems: microprocessors and microcontrollers, RISC and CISC controllers, Big endian and Little endian processors, Application specific ICs, Programmable logic devices, COTS, sensors and actuators, communication interface, embedded firmware, other system components, PCB and passive components.

Unit- II

Characteristics and quality attributes of embedded systems: characteristics, operational and non-operational quality attributes, application specific embedded system – washing machine, domain specific – automotive.


Programming embedded systems: structure of embedded program, infinite loop, compiling , linking and locating, downloading and debugging


Embedded Hardware: Memory map, i/o map, interrupt map, processor family, external peripherals, memory – RAM , ROM, types of RAM and ROM, memory testing, CRC ,Flash memory

Unit –V

Peripherals: Control and Status Registers, Device Driver, Timer Driver- Watchdog Timers, Embedded Operating System, Real-Time Characteristics, Selection Process


Design and Development: embedded system development environment – IDE, types of file generated on cross compilation, disassembler/ decompiler, simulator , emulator and debugging , embedded product development life-cycle, trends in embedded industry.

Practical List:

1) Configure timer control registers of 8051 and develop a program to generate given time delay.

2) Port I / O: Use one of the four ports of 8051 for O/P interfaced to eight LED’s. Simulate  binary counter (8 bit) on LED’s

3) Serial I / O: Configure 8051 serial port for asynchronous serial communication with serial port of PC exchange text messages to PC and display on PC screen. Signify end of message by carriage return.

4) Interface 8051 with D/A converter and generate square wave of given frequency on oscilloscope.

5) Interface 8051 with D/A converter and generate triangular wave of given frequency on oscilloscope.

6) Using D/A converter generate sine wave on oscilloscope with the help of lookup table stored in data area of 8051.

7) Interface stepper motor with 8051 and write a program to move the motor through a given angle in clock wise or counter clock wise direction.

8) Generate traffic signal.

9) Temperature controller.

10) Elevator control.


 Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++, First Edition January, Michael Barr, O’Reilly

  Introduction to embedded systems, Shibu K V, TATA MCGRAW-HILL.



Embedded Systems, Rajkamal, TATA MCGRAW-HILL

Download Ebook – Embedded Systems [PDF]